8 Types Of Abnormal Menstruation

By Arie Jansen

Updated On

Menstruation, the monthly shedding of the uterine lining, is a normal and natural process in a woman’s reproductive years. While menstrual cycles can vary from person to person, certain types of abnormal menstruation may indicate underlying health issues. Recognizing and understanding these abnormalities is crucial for early detection and treatment. In this article, we’ll explore eight different types of abnormal menstruation and their potential causes.

Key Takeaways

  1. Abnormal menstruation can manifest in various forms, including absent, painful, heavy, or irregular periods.
  2. Underlying health conditions, hormonal imbalances, and lifestyle factors can contribute to menstrual abnormalities.
  3. Seeking medical advice is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment of abnormal menstruation.

The 8 Types of Abnormal Menstruation

  1. Amenorrhea
  2. Dysmenorrhea
  3. Menorrhagia
  4. Oligomenorrhea
  5. Metrorrhagia
  6. Polymenorrhea
  7. Hypomenorrhea
  8. Irregular Menstruation

1. Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstrual periods. It can be classified as primary amenorrhea, where a girl has not started menstruating by age 15, or secondary amenorrhea, where periods stop for three or more months in someone who previously had regular cycles.

Causes of amenorrhea include pregnancy, breastfeeding, extreme weight loss, stress, and certain medical conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid disorders. If you experience prolonged absence of periods, consult your healthcare provider for evaluation.

2. Dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for severe menstrual pain. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by natural chemicals called prostaglandins, while secondary dysmenorrhea is due to underlying conditions like endometriosis or uterine fibroids.

Symptoms include intense cramps, back pain, and nausea. Over-the-counter pain relievers, heat therapy, and exercise can help manage menstrual pain. If pain is severe or interferes with daily life, talk to your doctor about treatment options.

3. Menorrhagia

Menorrhagia is abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding. It can be caused by hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, or blood clotting disorders. Symptoms include soaking through a pad or tampon every hour, passing large blood clots, and bleeding for more than seven days.

Heavy bleeding can lead to anemia and fatigue. If you experience excessive bleeding, seek medical advice for proper diagnosis and treatment.

4. Oligomenorrhea

Oligomenorrhea refers to infrequent or irregular menstrual periods, with cycles lasting more than 35 days. It can be caused by PCOS, thyroid disorders, or extreme weight loss.

Irregular periods can make it difficult to predict ovulation and may affect fertility. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, hormone therapy, or medications to regulate menstrual cycles. Talk to your doctor if you have consistently irregular periods.

5. Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia is irregular bleeding between menstrual periods. It can be caused by hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, or certain medications. Symptoms include spotting or bleeding between periods, after menopause, or during pregnancy. If you experience abnormal bleeding patterns, consult your healthcare provider for evaluation and treatment.

6. Polymenorrhea

Polymenorrhea refers to frequent menstrual periods occurring less than 21 days apart. It can be caused by hormonal imbalances, thyroid disorders, or endometriosis. Frequent periods can lead to anemia and fatigue.

Treatment options include hormone therapy or medications to regulate menstrual cycles. If you consistently have periods less than 21 days apart, talk to your doctor.

7. Hypomenorrhea

Hypomenorrhea is abnormally light or short menstrual periods, with bleeding lasting less than two days. It can be caused by hormonal imbalances, excessive exercise, or certain medications.

While light periods may seem convenient, consistently light bleeding may indicate an underlying issue. Consult your healthcare provider if you experience consistently light periods.

8. Irregular Menstruation

Irregular menstruation is a broad category that encompasses various abnormalities in menstrual cycles, including variations in timing, duration, or flow. It can be caused by stress, weight fluctuations, or underlying health conditions. Tracking your menstrual patterns can help identify irregularities. If irregularities persist, seek medical advice for proper evaluation and treatment.


Abnormal menstruation can manifest in various forms, each with its own set of symptoms and potential causes. From absent periods to heavy bleeding, these abnormalities can impact a woman’s overall health and well-being.

By understanding the different types of abnormal menstruation, you can better recognize when to seek medical advice. Remember, your menstrual health is an important aspect of your overall wellness. Don’t hesitate to consult your healthcare provider if you experience any persistent or concerning changes in your menstrual cycle.


1. Q: Can stress cause abnormal menstruation?

A: Yes, stress can disrupt hormone levels and lead to irregular or absent periods.

2. Q: When should I see a doctor about abnormal menstruation?

A: Consult your doctor if you experience prolonged absence of periods, severe pain, heavy bleeding, or persistent irregularities.

3. Q: Can birth control pills help regulate abnormal menstruation?

A: Yes, hormonal birth control can help regulate menstrual cycles and alleviate symptoms of certain abnormalities.

4. Q: Can diet and exercise affect menstrual cycles?

A: Yes, extreme dieting, excessive exercise, or rapid weight changes can disrupt menstrual cycles.

Arie Jansen

Dr. Arie Jansen is a distinguished Obstetrician & Gynecologist, specializing in infertility treatment. With years of dedicated service in women's health, Dr. Jansen has become renowned for his expertise and compassionate care. He holds a deep commitment to providing comprehensive reproductive healthcare solutions tailored to each patient's unique needs. Dr. Jansen's extensive experience, coupled with his unwavering dedication to his field, has earned him the trust and respect of both patients and peers alike.

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